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The first experimental reports of x-ray absorption fine structure were by H. Fricke, Phys. Rev. 16 (1920) 202 and by G. Hertz, Z. Phys. 3 (1920) 19.

The earliest experimental report of diffraction fine structure that we are aware of is by Y. Cauchois and C. Bonnelle, C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 242 (1956) 100 and 1596.

In this chapter, we follow the current international standard notation for the x-ray absorption acronyms: thus XAFS (x-ray absorption fine structure) includes both the EXAFS (extended x-ray absorption fine structure) and the XANES (x-ray absorption near edge structure). We use diffraction acronyms which are homologous to the standard absorption acronyms: thus DAFS (diffraction anomalous fine structure) includes both the EDAFS (extended diffraction anomalous fine structure) and the DANES (diffraction anomalous near edge structure).

The recent advances in MS-XAFS theory and analysis are described in J.J. Rehr, Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 32 Suppl. 32-2 (1993) 8; S.I. Zabinsky, Multiple Scattering Theory of XAFS, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Washington (1993); J.J. Rehr, R.C. Albers, S.I. Zabinsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69 (1992) 3397; J.J. Rehr, J. Mustre de Leon, S.I. Zabinsky, and R.C. Albers, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 113 (1991) 5135.

Previous experimental and theoretical diffraction fine structure work includes: Y. Heno, C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 242 (1956) 1599; G. Wendin, Phys. Scr. 21 (1979) 535; T. Fukamachi, S. Hosoya, T. Kawamura and J. Hastings, J. Appl. Cryst.  10 (1977) 321; D.M. Barrus, R.L. Blake, A.J. Burek, K.C. Chambers, and L.E. Cox, Phys. Rev. B 22 (1980) 4022; S.I. Salem and V.L. Hall, J. Phys. F 10 (1980) 1627; D.H. Templeton, L.K. Templeton, D.C. Phillips and K.O. Hodson, Acta Cryst. A36 (1980) 436; V. Ponomarev and Y.A. Turutin, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 29 (1984) 232; I. Arcon, A. Kodre, D. Glavic and M.  Hribar, J. Phys. (Paris) C9 (1987) 1105; I. Arcon, A. Kodre and M. Hribar, in Second European Conference on Progress in X-Ray Synchrotron Radiation Research, edited by A. Balerna, E. Bernieri and S. Mobilia (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, 1990) p. 419; I. Arcon, A. Kodre and M. Hribar, in X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure, edited by S. S. Hasnain (Ellis Horwood, London, 1991) p. 726.

H. Stragier, J.O. Cross, J.J. Rehr, L.B. Sorensen, C.E. Bouldin and J.C. Woicik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69 (1992) 3064.

C.E. Bouldin, J.C. Woicik, H. Stragier, J.O. Cross, J.J. Rehr and L.B. Sorensen, Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 32 Suppl. 32-2 (1993) 198.

D.J. Tweet, K. Akimoto, I. Hirosawa, T. Tatsumi, H. Kimura, J. Mizuki, L.B. Sorensen, C.E. Bouldin and T. Matsushita, Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 32 Suppl. 32-2 (1993) 203.

I.J. Pickering, M. Sansone, J.J. Marsch and G.N. George, Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 32 Suppl. 32-2 (1993) 206 and J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 115 (1993) 6302.

D.C. Bazin and D.A. Sayers, Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 32 Suppl. 32-2 (1993) 249 and 252.

H.J. Stragier, DAFS: A New X-Ray Structural Technique, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Washington (1993).

N.B., the most natural sign convention is tex2html_wrap_inline1398 negative, f' a positive cusp, and f'' a positive step. The almost universal convention is tex2html_wrap_inline1398 positive, f' a negative cusp, and f'' a positive step, and we follow this ``visual'' convention in all of our figures. Our equations, however, are in ``natural'' units. Also note that the amplitude produced by a wave scattered from a plane of atoms has an additional phase shift of -i; amplitude and the actual see, e.g., B.L. Henke, E.M. Gullikson and J.C. Davis, Atom. Nucl. Data Tables 54 (1993) 181 and 55 (1993) 349.

John S. Toll, Phys. Rev. 104 (1956) 1760.

Theory and 102.

For a review of anomalous scattering and references, see D.H. Templeton in Handbook on Synchrotron Radiation, edited by G. Brown and D.E. Moncton (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991) p. 201.

See L. Davidovich and H.M. Nussenveig, in Foundations of Radiation Theory and Quantum Electrodynamics edited by A.O. Barut (Plenum, New York, 1980) p. 83. references therein.

See the articles by M. Blume, by R.H. Pratt, L. Kissel and P.M. Bergstrom, Jr., and by C.T. Chantler in this book, and references therein.

H.K. Wagenfeld, Z. Phys. B 65 (1987) 437, and references therein.

D.T. Cromer and D. Liberman, J. Chem. Phys. 53 (1970) 1891, and Acta Cryst. A 37 (1981) 267; S. Sasaki, Numerical Tables of Anomalous Scattering Factors Calculated by the Cromer and Liberman Method KEK Report 88-14 (1989), and references therein.

J.J. Rehr, C.H. Booth, F. Bridges and S.I. Zabinsky, ``X-ray Absorption Fine Structure in Embedded Atoms'', University of Washington preprint (1993), accepted for publication in Phys. Rev. B.

X-ray Absorption: Principles, Applications, Techniques of EXAFS, SEXAFS and XANES, edited by R. Prins and D. Koningsberger (Wiley, New York, 1988).

K.H. Kim, M.T. Bell, R.K. Freitag, C.M. Dozier and C.E. Bouldin, Rev. Sci. Inst. 62 (1991) 982.

F.W. Lytle, R.B. Gregor, D.R. Sandstrom, E.C. Marques, J. Wong, C.L. Spiro, G.P. Huffman and F.E. Huggins, Nucl. Inst. Meth. 226 (1984) 542.

For a detailed recent experimental application of FEFF analysis techniques to XAFS, see A.I. Frenkl, E.A. Stern, M. Qian and M. Newville, Phys. Rev. B 48 (1993) 12449.

See E.A. Stern, Phys. Rev. B 48 (1993) 9825, and references therein.

See the article by F.J. Walker and E.D. Specht in this book, and references therein.

J.C. Mikkelsen, Jr. and J.B. Boyce, Phys. Rev. B 28 7130 (1983).

J.C. Woicik, C.E. Bouldin, M.I. Bell, J.O. Cross, D.J. Tweet, B.D. Swanson, T.M. Zhang, L.B. Sorensen, C.A. King, J.L. Hoyt, P. Pianetta, and J.F. Gibbons, Phys. Rev. B 43 (1991) 2419.

W.H. McMaster, N.K. DelGrande, J.H. Mallett and J.H. Hubbel, Compilation of X-ray Cross Sections, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Report UCRL-50174 (1969).

R.J. Cava, A.W. Hewat, E.A. Hewat, B. Batlogg, M. Marezio, K.M. Rabe, J.J. Krajewski, W.F. Peck Jr., and L.W. Rupp Jr., Physica C 165 (1990) 419.

For a current review of XANES theoretical and experimental methods and references, see J. Stöhr, NEXAFS Spectroscopy, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992).

J. Röhler, A. Larisch and R. Schafer, Physica C 191 (1992) 57.

See, for example, S.M. Heald, J.M. Tranquada, A.R. Moodenbaugh, and Youwen Xu, Phys. Rev. B 38 (1988) 761.

See, for example, H. Tolentino, E. Dartyge, A. Fontaine, G. Tourillon, T. Gourieux, G. Krill, M. Marer, and M.-F. Ravet, in High-tex2html_wrap_inline2104 Superconductors: Electronic Structure, edited by A. Bianconi and A. Marcelli (Pergamon, Oxford, 1989) p. 245.
See the article by K.D. Finkelstein, M. Hamrick and Q. Shen in this book.

For current reviews of powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation and references, see the articles by D.E. Cox and A.P. Wilkinson and by W. Limper and W. Prandl in this book.

See the article by G. Schütz in this book, and also: G. Schütz, Physica Scripta T 29 (1989) 712; G. Schütz, P. Fischer, S. Stähler, M. Knülle and K. Attenkoffer, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 32 Suppl. 32-2 (1993) 869.

G. Schütz, R. Wienke, W. Wilhelm, P. Kienle, R. Zeller, R. Frahm and G. Materlik, Phy. Rev. Lett. 58 (1987) 737.

J. Stöhr, Y. Wu, B.D. Hermsmeier, M.G. Samant, G.R. Harp, S. Koranda, D. Dunjam, B.P. Tonner, Science 259 (1993) 658.

D.H.  Bilderback, S. A. Hoffman and D. J. Thiel, Science 263 (1994) 201.

H. Kawata, Abstract MS-01.04.05, XVI Congress and General Assembly of the International Union of Crystallography, Beijing (1993), and private communication.

See the articles by D. H. Templeton, by A. Kirfel, and by W. Morgenroth, A. Kirfel and K. Fischer in this book.

A. Frenkel, E.A. Stern, A. Voronel, M. Qian and M. Newville, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71 (1993) 3485.

P.H. Fuoss, P. Eisenberger, W.K. Warburton and A. Bienenstock, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46 (1981) 1537, and J.B. Kortright, W.K. Warburton, and A. Bienenstock, in EXAFS and Near Edge Structure edited by A. Bianconi, L. Incoccia and S. Stipcich (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983) p. 362.

For a recent survey and references, see A. Filipponi and A. DiCicco, Sync. Rad. News 6, No. 1 (1993) 13.

R.V. Vedrinskii, V.L. Kraizman, A.A. Novakovich and V.S. Machavariani, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 4 (1992) 6155.